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Euclid, Apollonius of Perge, and Archimedes represent the culmination of Greek research in geometry and mechanics.Eratosthenes applied mathematics to geography and Aristarchus developed the heliocentric theory, but Hipparchus (who made fundamental discoveries in astronomy) persuaded the succeeding generations with his new version of the geocentric system. Everywhere the new literature and art interested large strata of the Greek-speaking public, which was predominantly middle-class. The works of the great historians of the Hellenistic age (Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris, Timaeus, Agatharchidas, Phylarchus, and Posidonius) are all lost, with the exception of Polybius, and only fragments of his work remain. Research on Hellenism has been helped by archaeological discoveries, new inscriptions, and the constitution of a new branch of research, papyrology, since the beginning of the 20 However, a knowledge of the political history of Hellenism is hampered by the fragmentary nature of the surviving sources. This collaboration was precarious in Greece alone, where consequently there was no political stability. The empire of Alexander the Great was the result of the military and intellectual cooperation of Greeks and Macedonians, who constituted the ruling class in the states emerging from the struggles of Alexander's successors.Since Droysen, many historians have reexamined the political and constitutional history of this period; they include B. There was also a revival (perhaps a transformation) of Pythagorean groups, which began to look like a religious sect.
Macedonia, first defeated in 197, was reduced to impotence in 168 and transformed into a province in 149.
The words Hellenism and Hellenistic have a long history in which the text of the Acts of the Apostles 6:1 plays a central part because it opposes Hebraioi to Hellenistai. Scaliger) this text was interpreted to imply a contrast between Jews who used Hebrew and Jews who used Greek in the synagogue service. Heinsius developed the notion that Jewish Hellenistai used a special Greek dialect (lingua hellenistica), which is reflected in the Septuagint translation of the Bible. Salmasius denied the existence of such a special dialect (1643), but the notion of a special lingua hellenistica to indicate the Greek of the Old and New Testaments remained in circulation until the middle of the 19 century in Germany, J. Herder used Hellenismus to indicate the way of thinking of Jews and other Orientals who spoke Greek. Matter specifically connected the word Hellénisme with the thought of the Greek-speaking Jews of Egypt. In 1833 he published a volume on Alexander the Great; and in 18 he published two volumes of Geschichte des Hellenismus embracing the century 323–222 He intended to continue his work in further volumes, but never did so, and it is not quite clear from what he says whether his original intention was to reach the age of Muhammad or to stop with Augustus. Classicism notwithstanding, literature and art developed new styles, characterized by realism of detail and a tendency toward the idyllic and the pathetic.
In 1877–78 he published a second (considerably modified) edition of these three volumes under the title of Geschichte des Hellenismus (which now included the reign of Alexander). Modern scholars have recognized local trends not only in literature but also in art.
There are signs that much of the literature now lost was fairly popular in character.
Figurative art certainly had a wide appeal, as can be deduced from the amount of cheap, but graceful, figurines of this period.
The third century was the period of the greatest power and prosperity of these kingdoms.